Hexamine is the scientific name for the heterocyclic organic molecule C6H12N4. Hexamethylenetetramine and urotropin are some other names for this chemical compound. It is most typical to treat urinary tract infections since it functions as an anti-infective drug. This substance also serves in the production of phenolic resin moulding compounds as a hardening agent. It acts as a binder in the brake and clutch linings. Spray and cream formulations of hexamine can also work to address concurrent odor and excessive sweating. In addition, it serves as a solid fuel.
Therefore, many companies are looking for pure hexamine with high properties for specific functions in their industries. If this is your concern, too, you can rely on JAM Group Co. as a prominent hexamine manufacturer. This hexamine supplier can provide you with the industrial grade of this compound that is suitable for many purposes. Products of this urotropine manufacturer are recommended choices for use as hardeners, binders, and smokeless solid fuel production. For further information, please get in touch with the experts of JAM Group in our German office.
What is Hexamine?
Methenamine, hexamine, and neurotrophin are other names for hexamethylenetetramine, a heterocyclic organic molecule with the formula C6H12N4 or (CH2)6N4. Water and polar organic solvents both have a high solubility for this white crystalline material. It has a cage-like structure similar to adamantane. The Hexamine powder was discovered in 1859 by Alexander Butlerov. It is helpful in the production of other organic molecules, such as additives for rubber, plastics, and medications. At 280 °C, it sublimes in vacuum. It is made industrially by combining ammonia with formaldehyde, and the reaction can occur in either a gas phase or a solution.
Hexamine is the most widely utilized ingredient to treat urinary tract infections because it functions as an anti-infective agent. Hexamine’s anti-infective properties result from hydrolysis, slowly releasing formaldehyde (CH2O) at a pH of 0.2 molars. Methenamine is a white hygroscopic crystalline powder or a colorless, odorless, glossy crystal.
In the manufacturing process, formaldehyde and ammonia are combined to create hexamine. Both the gas phase and the solution have the potential to perform the reaction. Similar to adamantane, the molecule possesses a tetrahedral cage-like structure. Nitrogen atoms, connected by methylene groups, occupy four vertex positions. Despite the molecular form defining a cage, unlike crown ethers or larger cryptand structures, there is no blank space available at the interior for binding other atoms or molecules. The molecule undergoes protonation and N-alkylation, behaving like an amine base (e.g., quaternium-15).
Hexamine is used in various industries, such as:
- In the production of phenolic resin moulding compounds as Hardening Agents;
- To alleviate concurrent odor and excessive sweating in the form of spray and cream;
- In the methenamine silver stain by Grocott;
- In brake and clutch linings as binders;
- As the main component in the production of RDX;
- To stop rubber from vulcanizing;
- In the production of Solid fuel;
- In the food industry as an additive;
- In organic chemistry as an Organic Synthesis Reagent.
Different Grades of Hexamine
Chemicals are generally, but not universally, graded on their labels. The grade reveals the substance’s purity and other vital properties. The quality of a chemical decreases with the number of different compounds, metals, water, and other contaminants present. Although there are many distinct grading criteria, you will frequently come across reagent, laboratory, and technical grades. Technical grade is the least pure of these, and reagent grade is the most refined. For more information, refer to the Chemistry Grade tables with every chemical substance. Higher-grade chemicals are more expensive than lower-grade chemicals because producing pure chemicals can be time-consuming and expensive. The laboratory- or technical-grade chemicals are sufficiently pure for most science fair projects. Producers can also take advantage of the industrial grade of each chemical because this grade is usually designed for such applications.
Methenamine Manufacturers produce this substance in various grades and forms to satisfy different market needs. For instance, Hexamine fuel tablet is a grade of this chemical compound. This product, often known as heat tablets or Esbit, is a solid fuel that comes in tablet shape. The tablets don’t liquefy while burning, don’t emit smoke, have a high energy density, and leave no ashes.
Hexamethylenetetramine powder is also presented in the market under different grades and purities. Each grade of this substance can refer to various Specifications about the substance, like:
- The amount of hexamine;
- PH of aqueous solution at specific temperatures;
- Maximum Ash;
- Ammonia as NH3;
- The amount of Iron;
- Stabilizer’s content.
It is also vital to know that hexamine content will change depending on the stabilizer content. Stabilizer content ranges from 1 to 3 percent, depending on the party’s needs. Based on the precise hexamine processing requirements, stabilizers like benzoic acid and aluminum silicate may also be utilized. We recommend you purchase your intended grade from a reputable formin manufacturer (hexamine) to ensure the purity and additional properties of the substance.
Hexamine Production Process
The production of hexamine is critical in several ways. This process directly impacts the purity and other properties of the outcome and determines the product’s specific application. As a result, each Aminoform Manufacturer (hexamine producer) uses a particular production process and some specific tools to present its customers with superior products to other providers. Below, we will show you a method to produce hexamine at an industrial grade.
Russian chemist Butlerov created hexamethylenetetramine, also known as hexamine, in 1859 for the first time. It is a heterocyclic organic molecule having the formula C6H12N4. This white crystalline substance sublimes in a vacuum at 280°C and is highly soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It can synthesize various chemical compounds, such as polymers, medicines, and rubber additives. Ammonia and formaldehyde are combined to make hexamine: 4 NH3 + 6 CH2O = C6H12N4 + 6 H2O ∆Hr = -230 kJ / mol.
There are primarily two ways to obtain hexamine. Suppose we want to decrease the amount of water entering the reactor. In that case, we can use anhydrous ammonia in the second method instead of adding ammonia and formaldehyde as an aqueous solution in the first. The composition is between w = 30-50% formaldehyde if ammonia is supplied to a gaseous reactant within multiple relationships of formaldehyde and ammonia. When formaldehyde aqueous solution is permitted to be the reactor, it often occurs at a ratio of between 3:2 and 3:3. The temperature inside the reactor ranges from 50 to 90 or 102 degrees Celsius because this process is exothermic. The ammoniaformaldehyde synthesis produces a lot of heat. 97% of the reactor is converted, and passes expire between a pH of 7 and 8. To improve the crystallization of the hexamine, the reaction mixture is collected in a vacuum evaporator, where the solution is concentrated until most of the water has evaporated. Concentrated water is injected into a crystallizer to create solid hexamine.
After being separated by centrifugation or filtration, the wet crystals are cleaned with water to create pure hexamine. Since the crystals contain less than 1% water, they stay in a spray dryer. The finished product is prepared for sale after drying.
Hexamine is manufactured as a free-flowing, granular powder and a about 42% solution that is less expensive because it does not require a crystallizer. Below, you can read about an effective way to make a continuous 42% hexamine solution.
Continuous 42% Hexamine Solution Production
Continuous hexamine water solution synthesis is simulated using specific tools, such as an Aspen Plus simulator. The reactor’s outlet temperature is first simulated at 80°C and then at 102°C. Hexamine is produced continuously at a constant pressure of 1 bar. These two simulations contrast. This simulator is quite frequent for any engineer assisting in the planning process. The Aspen Plus simulator uses the ideal thermodynamic model to compute the mass flows and energy balances. It happens during the manufacture of hexamine and assesses the process at various temperatures.
Reactor Outlet Temperature
The reaction typically occurs at the reactor’s 102°C output temperature, where 99 kW of heat flow should occur. According to research, the heat exchanger that can be introduced to the process and operates at a maximum temperature of 102°C is the most advantageous for production. Ionized water can be heated using any available energy, first in the cooler, then in the reactor, and last in a flash. Because it has few pollutants and may successfully be utilized for hot utilities, the partially separated water from the flash can be combined with ionized water.
Hexamine serves primarily as a hardener agent in manufacturing powdered or liquid phenolic resin production and phenolic resin molding compounds. These products are used as binding agents, including fireproof materials, abrasive products, non-woven textiles, and brake and clutch linings. Synthetic thermosetting resins made from phenol (an organic component) reaction with formaldehyde are known as phenolic formaldehyde resins.
Besides hexamethylenetetramine functions as a hardening and binder agent, it is involved in a wide range of industries. Below, you can discover more about this compound’s applications.
In Medicinal Industry
Hexamine treats urinary tract infections as mandelic acid salt (methenamine mandelate) or hippuric acid salt (methenamine hippurate). Methenamine is thought to act as an antibacterial by converting to formaldehyde in an acidic environment. Still, it is vital to know that insufficient evidence of benefit was discovered in a systematic review of its usage for this purpose in adult women, and more study is required.
As a result of formaldehyde’s astringent properties, phenylethylamine also functions as an over-the-counter deodorant.
In Smokeless Solid Fuel
Hexamethylenetetramine is a component of hexamine fuel tablets, which are used by campers, hobbyists, the military, and relief agencies to cook camping food or military rations. They also include 1,3,5-trioxane. Although it is hazardous, it burns without producing any smoke, has a high energy density of 30.0 megajoules per kilogram (MJ/kg), does not liquefy when burning, and leaves no ashes. Fire-protection laboratories employ standardized 0.149 g methenamine (hexamine) tablets as a clean and repeatable fire source to assess the flammability of carpets and rugs.
As a Food Additive
Hexamine is utilized as a food preservative and additive (INS number 239). Although it is classified in the EU under E number E239, it is not permitted to be used in the USA, Russia, Australia, or New Zealand.
The food ingredient hexamethylene tetramine (HMT) is currently approved for use in Provolone cheese in the EU. The amount of formaldehyde that results from HMT breaking down in acidic conditions is 25 mg/kg residual, which is the highest permissible level. According to specific research investigations in this area, using HMT in Provolone cheese at the MPL of 25 mg/kg residual quantity, represented as formaldehyde, would not pose a safety risk. However, these studies indicated that any expansion of HMT’s approved uses or MPL’s 25 mg/kg residual quantity, expressed as formaldehyde, would require a thorough analysis.
As a Reagent in Organic Chemistry
Hexamine is a chemical agent utilized by organic chemists in various complex chemical reactions, and it is frequently taught in classes. It is an effective tool for organic synthesis. Additionally, hexamine is employed in the Delepine process, the Sommelet reaction, and the Duff reaction (which formulates arenes). They are frequently used for chemical analysis to unknown solute (a particle dissolved into a solution) in a solution.
As mentioned above, hexamine is a substance with a wide range of chemical and physical properties that lead to various uses. As a result, it functions in many fields beyond those discussed in this section. For example, hexamine is used to manufacture deodorants, hair fixatives, paints, lacquers, photography chemicals, rubber and textile adhesives, and rubber and textile adhesives.
About JAM Group’s Hexamine
JAM Group Co. is a prominent producer and supplier of hexamine suitable for various industrial purposes. Every customer from around the world can rely on this urotropine manufacturer for a pure product. JAM Group counts on its skilled chemists and two equipped factories located in eastern Europe and the middle east. These experts and advanced tools ensure you a product with high purity and excellent properties.
This hexamine supplier provides you with different shipping plans, too. You can rely on a proper packing method based on international standards that ensure transportation safety. Customers can also go for its intended ways of packing and shipping that JAM Group provides as a powerful hexamine exporter. In this case, don’t hesitate to reach out to our support team.
Formaldehyde and ammonia are combined to create hexamine, also known as hexamethylenetetramine, or methenamine, with the formula C6H12N4. It takes the form of a colorless, glossy crystal or odorless, white crystalline powder that is both highly combustible and water-soluble. Explosive compounds, phenolic resins, adhesives, dyes, shrink-proof fabrics, motor oils/lubricants, antiseptics, fire starters, and pharmaceuticals are among the products made with them. Hexamine is additionally used to treat urinary tract infections in medicine. There are different grades of hexamine in the market with varying amounts of purity and specific properties. Customers should find a reliable hexamine manufacturer to ensure the required property and other intended characteristics.