Manganese Ore

Within the complex composition of Earth’s crust, manganese emerges as a key element, making up roughly 0.1% and holding the 12th spot in terms of abundance. This silvery-gray metal bears great importance not merely for its prevalence but for its notable characteristics. Manganese ore is known for its hardness and resistance to oxidation, qualities that render it indispensable in various industries. From steel production, where it plays a pivotal role in enhancing quality, to its use in dry-cell batteries, manganese’s properties enable a range of applications. This article is dedicated to discussing manganese ore, its distinctive properties, its different grades, its beneficiation processes, and, of course, its diverse applications. If you’re interested in this substance or this mineral is related to your industry, here’s your insightful guide to the substance’s characteristics.

Before going further into detail, we’re going to introduce a reputable player in the manganese market to you. JAM Group Co. has carved out a reputation as a trustworthy manganese ore supplier and exporter of various grades. With advanced factories and robust quality control units at their disposal, they take pride in housing a team of seasoned chemists, ensuring the delivery of some of the purest manganese products in the market. Whether you’re local or international, JAM Group has your back with impeccable packaging and efficient transportation solutions. Interested in understanding the manganese ore price or manganese price per ton? Or perhaps you’re keen on the current manganese ore price today in USD? Just reach out to our knowledgeable team for accurate and up-to-date insights or have a look at About Us page.


What is Manganese?

Manganese, symbolized as Mn and having the atomic number 25, stands out as a silvery, hard, and brittle metal. Typically, one might find it intertwined with iron within various minerals. Serving as a transition metal, manganese holds a pivotal role in an array of industrial uses, predominantly in the crafting of stainless steels. The integration of this metal enhances not only the strength of alloys but also their workability and resistance against wear. Industries far and wide utilize manganese oxide as a pivotal oxidizing agent, an additive in rubber production, and a key ingredient in the crafting of glass, fertilizers, and ceramics. Moreover, manganese sulfate has found its place as an effective fungicide. Beyond these applications, manganese plays a crucial role in human health. It remains indispensable in metabolic activities, bone structuring, and the defense against free radicals.

Delving deeper into its physical traits, manganese has a silvery-gray hue, bearing a striking resemblance to iron in its appearance. Its inherent hardness, coupled with its brittle nature, makes it stand out. While it resists fusion, exposure to air or water containing dissolved oxygen results in its slow tarnishing or oxidation. From a chemical standpoint, manganese can adopt varied oxidation states, ranging from +2 to +7. The intense purple permanganate anion, MnO4−, signifies manganese in its +7 oxidation state. This particular compound, potassium permanganate, is renowned in laboratories for its robust oxidizing capabilities. It even finds utility in the realm of medicine, especially in addressing certain fish ailments.

What is Manganese Ore?

In the vast tapestry of Earth’s crust, manganese stands as a significant element, representing about 0.1% of its composition and ranking as the 12th most abundant. On average, soils boast a manganese concentration of around 440 ppm, while the atmosphere holds a meager 0.01 μg/m^3. When we dive into the heart of manganese’s occurrence in nature, prominent manganese ores like pyrolusite (MnO2) and braunite (Mn2+Mn3+6) SiO12) come to the fore, followed by psilomelane and, to a lesser degree, rhodochrosite. It should be noted that each of them has a specific manganese ore composition. Out of these, pyrolusite takes the crown as the most vital ore.

Interestingly, a close spatial relation is often observed between manganese and iron ores. The world’s reservoir of manganese is vast yet unevenly spread. Manganese ore mines in South Africa are the most famous. This country claims the lion’s share with 80% of global resources, but other notable deposits dot Ukraine, Iran, Australia, India, China, Gabon, and Brazil. A mention-worthy fact from the past: back in 1978, studies pointed to a staggering 500 billion tons of manganese nodules on the ocean floor, though efforts to harness them economically were halted within that decade.

The manganese ore MSDS provides crucial guidance on handling and safety precautions. If the ore dust is inhaled, it’s advised to immediately move to an area with fresh air, followed by rinsing the mouth and clearing the nasal passages with water. Should breathing become challenging, supplying oxygen is recommended, and medical intervention should be sought without delay. When it comes to skin contact, the ore manganese is generally non-irritating. However, if any discomfort arises, it’s wise to cleanse the affected area with water and gentle soap. A physician should be consulted if the irritation persists. For instances of eye exposure, a swift response is imperative. Eyes should be washed with diphoterine, a sterile 0.9% sodium chloride solution, or simply clean water for a minimum of 15 minutes. If any foreign particles remain or if irritation continues, one must seek medical care.


Different Grades of Manganese Ore

At the beginning of our guide on manganese ore grades, we must mention an international rule affecting all grades of this mineral. Globally, numerous suppliers offer manganese ore to industries, with each supplier classifying their products based on purity and contaminant levels. Commonly, they segregate manganese into two main grades:

  • “High-grade”, which boasts over 44% manganese content.
  • The “medium-grade” holds less than 44% manganese content.

They might be either oxidized or described as “semi-carbonated”. It’s also worth noting that these classifications also stem from the specific type of manganese ore in question, further diversifying the offerings. In the following, we will discuss the famous types of manganese ore in the market.

Pyrolusite: The Primary Ore of Manganese

Pyrolusite stands among manganese ore types because of its unique properties. The mineral is mainly composed of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and holds significant importance as a primary ore of manganese. This mineral, often seen with a black, somewhat shapeless appearance, can vary in structure — from granular to fibrous and even columnar at times. When observed, it showcases a metallic shine, carries a black or bluish-black streak, and has the tendency to leave marks upon touch.

Its curious name stems from the Greek words signifying “fire” and “to wash,” pointing to its historical use in decolorizing glass. Commonly found in tandem with minerals such as manganite, hollandite, and hausmannite, pyrolusite thrives in environments with oxidizing conditions, especially in hydrothermal deposits. Additionally, its presence is notable in bogs and is often the result of manganite alterations.

Braunite: A Significant Manganese Ore

Braunite, a manganese silicate mineral, is another manganese ore that stands out for its unique composition, which combines both di- and tri-valent manganese. The formula that best describes this mineral is Mn2+Mn3+6[O8|SiO4]. Its composition is further distinguished by the presence of various impurities like iron, calcium, and boron, to name a few. Exhibiting a Mohs hardness between 6 and 6.5, braunite often appears as grey or black tetragonal crystals. Notably, the mineral owes its name to Wilhelm von Braun of Gotha, Germany. Furthermore, another variant, known as braunite II, with a formula of Ca (Mn3+, Fe3+)14SiO24, has been identified, with its origins traced back to Kalahari in South Africa. A closer look at braunite’s crystalline attributes reveals a tetragonal structure, often found as pyramidal crystals, sometimes with visible striations.

Psilomelane: A Manganese Oxide Mineral

Psilomelane, known for its hard black texture, falls under a group of manganese oxides, which includes minerals like hollandite and romanechite. Differing from true hematite, an iron oxide, it’s occasionally but mistakenly referred to as black hematite. Its structure comprises hydrous manganese oxide enriched with elements like barium and potassium. While its exact composition can be challenging to pinpoint, one can represent its generalized formula as Ba (Mn2+) (Mn4+)8O16(OH)4 or, alternatively, (Ba, H2O)2Mn5O10. Distinctively harder than other hydrous manganese oxides, psilomelane possesses a hardness rating between 5 and 6. Its appearance often showcases a shiny surface with a submetallic luster, seen especially in its botryoidal and stalactitic forms. Brownish-black in streak with a smooth fracture, it’s also notable for its reaction with hydrochloric acid, releasing chlorine gas.

Rhodochrosite: The Rose-Colored Manganese Mineral

When discussing different types of manganese ore, it is vital to bring up the name of rhodochrosite. With its characteristic chemical composition of MnCO3, it is a manganese carbonate mineral often recognized for its distinct rose-red hue. Though this rich color is its purest form, shades can vary from soft pink to a muted brown. When tested, it leaves a white streak and registers a Mohs hardness between 3.5 and 4.5. It’s interesting to note its crystalline structure: adopting a trigonal system, rhodochrosite’s carbonate ions are triangularly arranged, and six oxygen ions envelop manganese ions. This results in a cohesive three-dimensional structure of MnO6 octahedra and CO3 triangles.

Often mistaken for the harder manganese silicate, rhodonite, rhodochrosite stands out for its softness. Notably, this mineral originates from the oxidation of manganese ore and can be located in regions spanning from South Africa to China and the Americas. Its significance in Argentina is underlined by its status as a national symbol. A fascinating aspect is its ability to form a solid solution with iron carbonate, known as siderite. The occasional substitution of calcium in its structure can lead to its pinkish tints.


Manganese Production Process

Turning manganese ore into pure manganese is a thorough process that starts at the early stages of ore exploration. Once suitable deposits are identified and extracted, the journey progresses through several beneficiation steps, each fine-tuning the ore to yield varied types of manganese products. A well-orchestrated production process holds paramount importance for multiple reasons:

  • It guarantees a consistent manganese quality suitable for diverse applications;
  • It optimizes resource use, ensuring minimal wastage and maximum output;
  • A precise and controlled procedure minimizes environmental harm, underpinning sustainable mining practices.

Given these factors, it’s clear that the intricacies of the manganese ore processing play a crucial role in shaping the industry’s success. As a result, each customer needs to have a general understanding of this process. Later on, we will discuss the production process in detail.

Mine Exploration

In the initial stage of manganese production, geologists play a pivotal role in locating and evaluating potential manganese ore deposits. Various techniques aid in this endeavor. For example, some experts might employ electrical resistivity tomography alongside induced polarization (IP) geoelectrical methods. These approaches help in pinpointing metal distribution and discerning mineralization zones, ensuring a fruitful exploration process.

Mine Planning

Once survey results are in hand, engineers meticulously strategize the mining approach to retrieve the ore efficiently. This phase encompasses both the layout of the mine and the coordination of mining operations. Crafting the mine’s design, engineers aim to establish a layout that ensures safe and straightforward ore extraction, all while being cost-effective and environmentally considerate.

Mining Phase

Manganese mining predominantly occurs in open-pit mines. While certain ores benefit from a washing upgrade, those that are smaller in size might be consolidated through sintering. Notably, innovative methods to mine nodules from the seabed have emerged, yet these techniques remain less economical when juxtaposed with the straightforward mining of high-quality land-based deposits.

Shallow open-pit mining stands as the predominant technique for manganese ore mining. A notable example of this is the Northern Territory mine on Groote Eylandt, an island near Australia’s Gulf of Carpentaria, owned by South 32. However, not all manganese deposits are close to the surface. In situations where the deposits are deeper, underground mining becomes a viable option. The Chiatura Manganese Mine in the Georgian town of Chiatura, under Georgian Manganese LLC’s management, adopts both techniques based on ore depth. This underground method is typically reserved for higher-grade manganese ores to justify the added expense.


The grinding stage is an integral part of manganese production. Predominantly, ball mills come into play, where a rotating drum filled with steel balls aids in breaking down manganese ores into a refined powder. The procedure begins by ensuring the ore is moisture-free, typically achieved through roasting. Once dried, the ore undergoes crushing using specialized equipment, turning it into a manageable powder form. This crushed material is introduced to the ball mill, mingling with steel balls. Over several hours, the continuous rotation of the drum ensures the ore is uniformly ground. Any remnants or coarse particles are filtered out using sieves. The goal is to achieve a consistent fine powder, optimizing the subsequent stages of manganese production.


To obtain pure manganese, specialists utilize hydrometallurgical and electrolytic methods aiming to refine manganese ore deposits. On the other hand, producing ferromanganese and silicomanganese involves smelting the ores either in a blast furnace or, more often, in an electric one. This smelting, especially the conversion of manganese oxides to manganous oxide using carbon monoxide, is a multifaceted thermodynamic task. When aiming to reduce the manganous oxide to metallic form further, only high temperatures with carbon can achieve this.

Challenges arise when gangue oxides, like silica, bond with MnO, preventing its reduction. This issue can be tackled by opting for ores rich in basic elements like lime or by introducing fluxes such as roasted limestone. Yet, this solution can lead to an increase in slag, which, in turn, can dissolve some manganese, reducing the metal yield. Moreover, the metal can also be impacted by silica being converted to silicon based on the smelting temperature and slag’s properties.


Manganese Ore Applications

Answering the question, “what is manganese ore used for?” requires having a look at the substance’s distinctive properties. It holds a prominent position in various industries due to its unique properties. Hard and brittle in nature, it can be challenging to meld, yet it is susceptible to oxidation, especially when exposed to air or water with dissolved oxygen. Among its varied oxidation states, the +7 state is particularly noteworthy, leading to the formation of the vibrant purple permanganate ion MnO4−. Given these attributes, manganese is an indispensable element, contributing vastly to diverse applications, from metallurgy to chemicals. In the following, you can read about the famous uses of manganese ore.

In Steelmaking

The steel industry worldwide heavily depends on manganese ore, with up to 90 percent of its consumption going into steel production. This mineral plays a pivotal role in steelmaking; it aids in transforming iron ore, which is a compound of iron and oxygen, into pure iron by removing oxygen and sulfur. Further, manganese serves as a crucial alloy, enhancing the quality of steel. While steel only requires a small quantity of manganese, between 6 to 9 kilograms per ton, nearly a third of this is utilized during the iron ore refining phase. The remaining two-thirds is then incorporated as an alloy, enhancing the steel’s resilience and reducing its fragility.

Manganese’s versatility is evident in its presence across various steel types, offering distinct benefits. For instance, carbon and HSLA steels incorporate up to 2% manganese, which refines their structure and augments their mechanical strength. In times when nickel is scarce, manganese ore becomes an alternative, appearing in certain stainless steels within the 5.5% to 10% range. A notable historical use of manganese is in Hadfield steels, which were formulated before the 1900s and contain 10 to 15% manganese and 1.0 to 1.4% carbon. These steels, when cooled from high temperatures, maintain their austenitic structure at room temperature, gaining immense work hardening rates. This unique quality makes them especially suitable for tasks like mining, where surface hardness is essential but retaining underlying ductility is equally vital.

In Aluminum alloys

Manganese ore uses aren’t limited to steel production alone; it’s also pivotal in the creation of aluminum alloys. By adding roughly 1.5% manganese to aluminum, the resultant alloy showcases enhanced resistance to corrosion. This improvement is attributed to the formation of grains within the alloy, which effectively absorbs impurities that could otherwise trigger galvanic corrosion. This fortified version of aluminum, enriched with manganese, holds significant advantages in terms of durability and longevity.

Such robust aluminum-manganese alloys find their way into a variety of everyday products. Some common applications include beverage cans that hold our favorite drinks, utensils and kitchen tools we use for cooking, and roofing materials that shield our homes. Furthermore, these alloys are integral in manufacturing car radiators, ensuring they last longer even in demanding conditions. The transportation sector also reaps the benefits of this alloy, incorporating it into components that require a balance of lightweight and resilience.

In Copper alloys

Manganese’s versatility extends beyond steel and aluminum, making significant contributions to copper alloys. In copper, even small traces of manganese, ranging from 0.1% to 0.3%, enhance the alloy’s overall quality. These minor additions not only deoxidize the copper but also augment its castability and mechanical robustness. As manganese seamlessly blends with copper and other elements like aluminum, zinc, or nickel, its influence is evident in several commercial copper alloys. Many such alloys incorporate about 1% to 2% manganese, aiming to bolster both strength and adaptability when heated.

While manganese’s presence in copper alloys is notable, its applications can be quite specialized. For instance, an alloy predominantly made of manganese, combined with copper and nickel (72% Mn, 18% Cu, 10% Ni), has a distinct use. This unique blend is crucial for crafting bimetallic strips in devices that regulate temperature, commonly found in vehicles. However, it’s worth noting that the demand for manganese in copper alloys remains relatively modest. With an annual consumption of just two million tonnes, the copper alloy industry taps into only a fraction of the global manganese market.

In Other metal alloys

Manganese ore’s contributions extend beyond the commonly known alloys, finding relevance in a range of other metals. A notable instance was its inclusion in an alpha-beta titanium-base alloy, holding 8% manganese, pivotal for the Gemini re-entry control module back in the 1960s. This element also modestly enriches certain zinc and magnesium alloys, typically within a range of 0.1% to 0.2%. Precious metals, such as gold and silver, along with bismuth, can be alloyed with manganese, leading to specialized products mainly utilized in the electronics sector. Yet, it’s essential to realize that the share of manganese in these applications remains a minor fraction of its global consumption.

In Chemicals

Manganese ore, beyond its metallurgical applications, finds extensive use in the chemical domain. One standout compound, permanganate, serves as a potent oxidizing agent, finding its way into quantitative analyses and even medical treatments. A specific form, potassium permanganate, plays an essential role in ensuring the purity of drinking water and aids in wastewater treatment while also doubling as a disinfectant for certain skin ailments. Shifting the focus to agriculture, “Maneb,” a specialized manganese compound, offers protection against various crop diseases, from mildew in vines to ailments in bananas and peanuts. Moreover, manganese sulphate, a compound valued in both the agriculture and chemical industries, enriches fertilizers and animal feed.

In Batteries

The uses of manganese ore aren’t limited to the realm of metallurgy. It is also regarded as a useful substance in the battery industry. Specifically, manganese dioxide stands out as a key depolarizer in dry-cell batteries. In these batteries, the primary role of manganese dioxide is to react with hydrogen, leading to the formation of water. The invention of the Leclanché cell back in 1868 marked the beginning of using manganese dioxide in this capacity. Fast forward to the 1950s, and we witnessed the introduction of alkaline batteries. These batteries operate based on the chemical interaction between zinc and manganese dioxide. Additionally, a unique magnesium chloride-manganese dioxide cell emerged, primarily reserved for military use.

In producing batteries of superior quality, the industry has turned to synthetically derived manganese dioxide grades. These synthetic forms, named after their production methods, include EMD (Electrochemical Manganese Dioxide) and CMD (Chemical Manganese Dioxide). The former results from an electrolysis process, while the latter is a product of a purely chemical method. The combined output of these synthetic forms stands at around 300,000 tonnes annually, and this number is on the rise. Meanwhile, for standard cells, natural manganese dioxide still finds its place, predominantly sourced from nations such as Gabon, Ghana, Brazil, China, Mexico, and India. After extraction, this natural variant undergoes a grinding process to convert it into a fine powder, making it apt for direct integration into the battery’s cathode mix.


About JAM Group Co.’s Manganese Ore

JAM Group Co. has firmly established itself as a dependable supplier and exporter of manganese ore, offering it in a range of grades. Boasting state-of-the-art factories complemented by robust quality control units, the company’s strength lies in its team of seasoned chemists. Their expertise empowers JAM Group Co. to deliver some of the market’s purest manganese products consistently. With an unwavering commitment to quality, the company goes the extra mile to ensure that customers receive nothing short of a premium product.

When it comes to the finer details of product delivery, JAM Group Co. excels. Regardless of the customer’s location, they can be assured of the company’s commitment to pristine packaging, adhering to international standards. However, if customers have specific packaging preferences, the company is more than willing to accommodate them. Beyond packaging, JAM Group’s varied transportation and shipping solutions ensure that customers can receive their orders seamlessly, no matter their global position. For more detailed information on pricing or other inquiries, the experts at JAM Group Co. are always at hand to assist with your questions, such as the price of manganese ore.

When it comes to the finer details of product delivery, JAM Group Co. excels. Regardless of the customer’s location, they can be assured of the company’s commitment to pristine packaging, adhering to international standards. However, if customers have specific packaging preferences, the company is more than willing to accommodate them. Beyond packaging, JAM Group’s varied transportation and shipping solutions ensure that customers can receive their orders seamlessly, no matter their global position. For more detailed information on pricing or other inquiries, the experts at JAM Group Co. are always at hand to assist with your questions, such as the price of manganese ore and the manganese ore market at different periods of time. For further information regarding this company, we recommend navigating to About Us.



Manganese ore, with its silvery-gray appearance, stands out for its hardness and resistance to rusting, making it a highly sought-after metal in various industries. This ore comes in different types, like pyrolusite, braunite, and rhodochrosite, each with distinct characteristics. Depending on purity, it’s usually classified into two main grades: high-grade with more than 44% manganese content and medium-grade with less. The production process of this ore involves intricate mining techniques, followed by refining to derive pure manganese. Once processed, it becomes a key player in numerous applications, from strengthening steel to being a vital component in dry-cell batteries.