Sodium Sulfide, known for its distinct chemical and physical characteristics, plays a crucial role across a broad spectrum of industrial activities. This substance, integral to the smooth operation of processes in water treatment, the textile and leather sectors, as well as the pulp and paper industry, showcases its versatility. Its unique properties, such as solubility in water and the ability to react with various organic and inorganic materials, underline the importance of understanding sodium sulfide in depth. As we delve into this article, readers will be guided through an exploration of sodium sulfide properties, shedding light on why this chemical serves as a cornerstone in numerous industrial applications. You can also find out about the substance’s various applications, by navigating to A Comprehensive Overview of Sodium Sulfide Uses.


Sodium Sulfide Properties; A Closer Look

Taking a look at sodium sulfide reveals a compound with a broad range of chemical and physical properties that are pivotal in its application across various industries. The sodium sulfide formula is Na2S, and the hydrate form is Na2S·9H2O. It presents as a colorless solid in anhydrous and hydrated crystalline forms. However, due to polysulfide impurities, it’s often encountered as yellow to brick-red crystals in technical grades. This compound is notable for its solubility in water, resulting in strongly alkaline solutions essential for its widespread use.

Furthermore, sodium sulfide’s interaction with moist air is vital, as it releases hydrogen sulfide gas, a substance known for its toxic and corrosive properties, along with a distinctive rotten egg odor. Commercially, sodium sulfide is available in various grades, commonly including those with approximately 60% Na2S by weight, indicating a specific hydration level that affects its application and handling. In the following, we will discuss the substance’s physical and chemical properties in more detail.


The Chemical Properties of Sodium Sulfide 

Sodium Sulfide Structure

The structural composition of sodium sulfide (Na2S) is an intriguing aspect of its chemical identity, showcasing a unique arrangement known as the antifluorite structure. In this configuration, sodium ions (Na+) are positioned in the lattice points normally occupied by fluoride ions in the calcium fluoride (CaF2) structure, while the larger sulfide ions (S2−) take the place of calcium ions (Ca2+). This distinctive arrangement facilitates a robust framework that underpins the sodium sulfide properties.

Understanding the antifluorite structure of sodium sulfide is crucial for comprehending its reactivity and behavior in various applications, ranging from industrial processes to scientific research. The precise alignment of ions within this structure explains the compound’s stability under certain conditions and its interactions with other substances, making it a subject of interest for those studying inorganic chemistry and material science.

What is Sodium Sulfide Molar Mass?

The molar mass of sodium sulfide, an essential aspect of sodium sulfide properties, stands at approximately 78.05 grams per mole. This calculation is derived from the atomic masses of sodium (Na), about 22.99 g/mol, and sulfur (S), with an atomic mass of approximately 32.07 g/mol. By combining two sodium atoms with one sulfur atom to form Na2S, the total molar mass is obtained. Understanding sodium sulfide molecular weight is crucial for various chemical processes and calculations, such as stoichiometry in reactions involving sodium sulfide, determining the compound’s concentration in solutions, or calculating reactant and product quantities in laboratory or industrial settings. This figure facilitates accurate measurement and usage of the chemical in scientific and industrial applications.

What is Sodium Sulfide Boiling Point?

The boiling point of sodium sulfide varies significantly across its different forms. The anhydrous form of sodium sulfide, devoid of water, exhibits a high boiling point at approximately 1,176 degrees Celsius (2,149 degrees Fahrenheit; 1,449 Kelvin), underscoring its stability under extreme conditions. Conversely, the hydrated forms of sodium sulfide, specifically the pentahydrate and nonahydrate versions, have much lower boiling points at 100 degrees Celsius and 50 degrees Celsius, respectively. These variations highlight the impact of water content on the sodium sulfide properties, with the presence of water molecules significantly reducing the temperature at which the compound transitions from liquid to gas. 

What is the pH of Sodium Sulfide?

The pH level is another crucial aspect we must explore when discussing sodium sulfide properties. Understanding the pH of sodium sulfide offers valuable insights into its chemical nature and applications. The pH value, a measure that quantifies the acidity or basicity of a solution, is particularly telling in the case of sodium sulfide (Na2S). With a pH value of approximately 10.4, sodium sulfide exhibits a strongly basic characteristic when dissolved in water.

This measurement stems from the compound’s ability to increase the concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution, thereby reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+), which is the hallmark of a basic solution. The mathematical representation of pH as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration underscores this relationship.

Is Sodium Sulfide Soluble?

Sodium sulfide solubility is a defining characteristic. Primarily, this compound dissolves in water, creating a solution with a strong alkaline nature. However, its interaction with organic solvents reveals more about its chemical behavior. Studies have shown that sodium sulfide is also soluble in a range of alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, and benzyl alcohol, at specific temperatures. These solubility properties may lead to the formation of sodium alkoxide and hydrosulfide, demonstrating sodium sulfide’s versatile acid-base interactions.

It is noteworthy that the solubility figures for these alcohols significantly deviate from earlier literature, highlighting the importance of contemporary research in understanding the comprehensive solubility profile of sodium sulfide. Discussing whether sodium sulfide is soluble or insoluble underscores the compound’s utility in a broad spectrum of chemical processes, from industrial applications to laboratory research.

Is Sodium Sulfide Acid or Base?

Sodium sulfide stands out in the chemical community for its strong alkaline nature, akin to sodium hydroxide, positioning it firmly on the base side of the pH scale. This characteristic is critical for those working with or studying chemical compounds, as it dictates how sodium sulfide interacts with other substances. Specifically, when it comes into contact with acids, a rapid reaction occurs, leading to the production of hydrogen sulfide gas, a compound known for its high toxicity and distinctive, unpleasant smell. The ability of sodium sulfide to cause chemical burns further underscores its potent nature and the need for careful handling. Understanding whether sodium sulfide acts as an acid or a base is essential for academic purposes and practical applications in various industries, ensuring this powerful chemical’s safe and effective use. To explore this in more detail, head over to Sodium Sulfide MSDS: Quick Safety Reference.


The Physical Properties of Sodium Sulfide

Moving on from the sodium sulfide properties from a chemical point of view, the substance also exhibits distinct physical properties, contributing to its wide range of applications. Initially, it presents itself as a colorless, hygroscopic solid capable of absorbing environmental moisture, which plays a critical role in its storage and handling requirements. The characteristic odor of rotten eggs associated with sodium sulfide is noteworthy, mainly when it comes into contact with moist air, releasing hydrogen sulfide gas, a byproduct recognized for its pungent smell.

Moreover, the density of sodium sulfide varies depending on its form: the anhydrous type has a density of 1.856 g/cm³, making it relatively dense compared to other substances. In its hydrated forms, the pentahydrate version shows a lower density of 1.58 g/cm³, and the nonahydrate form further decreases to 1.43 g/cm³, illustrating how water content influences its physical characteristics. These properties, including its appearance, odor, and density, are essential for professionals working with sodium sulfide, as they affect its behavior in chemical processes and its safe handling in various industrial settings.


Further Information about Sodium Sulfide Properties

Diving deeper into sodium sulfide properties, it’s essential to recognize a range of identifiers and regulatory information that play a significant role in its handling and application across industries:

These points show the comprehensive regulatory and identification framework surrounding sodium sulfide, highlighting the importance of meticulous adherence to safety and handling standards in its industrial and scientific use.


A Closing Note

Concluding this article about sodium sulfide properties, it’s pertinent to highlight the significance of identifying a dependable supplier of sodium sulfide. JAM Group Co. has established itself as a key player in the global chemical industry, particularly renowned for its production and distribution of sodium sulfide, including the highly sought-after Sodium Sulfide – Yellow Flakes. Leveraging state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and a team of seasoned professionals, JAM Group Co. ensures high-quality products that meet the diverse needs of its international clientele.

The company distinguishes itself by offering sodium sulfide in standard packings, accommodating a variety of shipping options to ensure efficient and safe delivery worldwide. For customers and industry partners looking to delve deeper into the company’s offerings and operational excellence, JAM Group Co. invites exploration through its ‘About Us‘ section, promising an insightful glimpse into its commitment to quality, innovation, and customer satisfaction in the sodium sulfide market.

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